The city’s brass-band craze reached an early peak when several downtown theaters began to host competitive performances between rival groups in the 1830s. : P-Funk and the Politics of Signifyin(g),” addresses utopianism, rhetorical play and coded political commentary in the music and mythology of George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic. Stewart, Alexander. Ned Sublette cites the bewildered testimony of traveler Christian Schultz, who witnessed and wrote one of the first detailed accounts of a Sunday Congo Square dance in 1808 (2008:281). We can perform as background music or take over, center stage! This rhythm is articulated by a pattern of snare accents on the 1, the “and” after 2, and the 4, as shown in figure 8: Figure 8. While the drums continue to articulate a tresillo pattern (or the “three side” of the clave), the guitar and piano figures are two-measure variations of the son clave we saw in figure 2. But in New Orleans, culture also comes bubbling up from the streets and one of the most unique local expressions of this sort of culture is the second line parade. As with most Afro-diasporic musics, the thickening cross rhythms and “schizophrenic” feel of straight against swung beats in New Orleans R&B were held together by a recurring accented beat. In second line parades, two drummers establish the central rhythm. 2001. . Following the two bars of unaccompanied drum beat at the beginning of the song, the piano comes in playing in a dense, Professor Longhair-influenced fashion heavy with such ornaments as sixteenth triplets (measure 6), grace note slides (the beginning of the figure repeated in bars 3, 5, 7, and 9), and “blue notes,” which are approximated by striking two adjacent keys (the 3 beat and the “and” beat after 4 in bar 9). Until measure 16—where an around-the-kit roll and several dropped accents signal the end of the opening section—the bass drum hits beats 1 and 3 consistently, as would be expected in a standard march beat. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. While the former was a native of the city who followed second lines and worked with Professor Longhair as a teenager, the latter hailed from Tampa. This shift opened up a space for New Orleans musicians to experiment further with the mixed feel of the second line. 2011. The resultant ratio of 4.25:2.9125 can be simplified to a ratio of roughly 4:2.75, which is the ratio I indicated in the expressive text below the first two measures of the drum staff in my transcription. We methodically combine factors of the event: theme, style, venue, performance, target audience and produce a noteworthy lineup of music that compliments the events narrative, and delivers an entertainment experience with elegance and style. A second line parade has two parts. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Individual articles are the copyright of their authors. 1974. We are not a band booking agency or a company that hires outsourced characters. On “Hey Pocky A-Way,” the drums establish a strong “on the one” feel through a bass drum and snare accent on every downbeat. brezzy. Organizing a second line is not hard, though it requires a few hundred dollars and some advance planning. Moore, Stanton. UCLA. Victor Goines Jazz for Young People Series Warner Brothers Publication Music Selection • Utilizes basic devices of jazz- call-and-response, riffs, and shout chorus • Follows blues form • Historical in nature celebrating the spirit of music in New Orleans. Though accent patterns in funk music almost always emphasize off-beats or in-between beats (the “ands” between 1-2-3-4), it is the One which holds the entire rhythmic structure together. Jasmine Green. Transcribed by author. VHS. “Hey Pocky A-Way.” From Rejuvenation. As with “The 2nd Line,” the reader should keep in mind that the underlying feel is somewhere in between a triplet shuffle and a straight quadruple meter. that have been adopted in a wide variety of American popular and jazz styles, and through my analysis of these features one basic point has become clear: Western musical notation is woefully unequipped to illustrate any feel or pulse aside from straight or triplet-shuffle rhythm. 1996. He is presently conducting research on drumming traditions and contemporary brass band music in New Orleans. Jackson: The University of Mississippi Press. The fifth and seventh eighth notes are the longest in each measure, while the second and sixth are the shortest. Katonah, NY: Face the Music. In contrast to the divisive rhythm typical of Western classical music, in which larger rhythmic units are divided equally, in additive rhythms the larger rhythmic or metrical unit is divided unequally. As a result, I chose to analyze the horn line, which is far more prominent and visible on the graph. While the first measure of these two grooves is essentially identical, the piano and guitar diverge in the second measure, playing accents off of one another and creating something of a “call-and-response” effect. They arrived as scheduled and the parade went on without a hitch. Listen free to Various Artists – New Orleans Second Line Mardi Gras Party (Mardi Gras In New Orleans, Carnival Time and more). This is how we do it in New Orleans. The bamboula and the clave are both crucial building blocks of second line rhythms. Though they will later diverge both melodically and rhythmically, the horns play most of the “head” section of “The 2nd Line” in unison. Features of West and Central African culture survived to a greater degree in New Orleans than in other parts of the United States in part because of the city’s distinct political situation. Perhaps the figures I have provided in each of my analyses, which illustrate the durations of each eighth note as accurately as was possible for my study, could serve as a starting point for a new notational model that indicates duration spatially. In common speech, however, when people refer to a “second line,” they imply the whole event—generally a brass band or black Indian parade or a jazz funeral sponsored by any of the city’s large number of traditional black social clubs and civic societies. We cater to diverse audiences from around the globe and can play many cultural folk tunes. Smith, Michael P. 1994. As my analysis of these examples illustrates, jazz and funk musicians draw on many of the same basic features of second line rhythm—including the clave, the “Big Four,” and “between the cracks,” all terms that I will later explain in more detail—but shape and contextualize these elements differently according to the dictates of the genre. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. I undertook a spectrographic analysis of the recording’s wave form for just this purpose. A “between the cracks” rhythm, on the other hand, cannot be adequately notated whatsoever. Musical Gumbo: The Music of New Orleans. Martinez, Maurice. Our talent and prices cannot be beat!! Unlike in brass bands, there are two chordophones (the pianos), and a string bass is used in place of the sousaphone. These two runs are highlighted in figure 4: Figure 4. This basic snare pattern is unchanging throughout the song; such repetition is characteristic of funk music, where each instrument often plays a one- or two-bar figure or riff over and over again. Although a relatively straightforward rendition, both the instrumentation and the performance style suggest a hybrid of traditional (pre-bop) jazz, brass band music, and early rhythm and blues. In New Orleans African-American Creole culture, Second Lines are the community event of … Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. In New Orleans, young musicians brought Brown’s innovations full circle by mixing funk with the local styles—second line brass band music, Mardi Gras Indian songs, and piano rumbas—from which it sprang. The first line is usually a brass band and the ones being honored, the newlyweds. 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